By Stephen J. Winters MD, Barbara J. Clark PhD (auth.), Carrie J. Bagatell MD, William J. Bremner MD, PhD (eds.)
In contemporary years, clinical researchers have established that androgens, either certainly happening and artificial, impression a myriad of physiological capabilities and will even be used therapeutically in a large choice of medical settings. In Androgens in health and wellbeing and illness, an authoritative panel of researchers and clinicians assessment our most recent realizing of andrology in either uncomplicated technological know-how and scientific drugs. subject matters variety from explaining the biology of androgens-from numerous varied perspectives-to illuminating their function within the improvement and modulation of physiologic structures. The authors reveal how testosterone could be a invaluable adjunct to the remedy of numerous sickness states, rather these within which catabolism and lack of muscle tissue ensue. different chapters think about very important issues equivalent to androgen use in athletes, the potential for androgens to enhance actual functionality and caliber of existence in older males, and androgens as strength male contraceptives. Of precise curiosity is a presentation of modern advances in figuring out the physiological and medical results of androgen extra and androgen deficiency in ladies.
Authoritative and wide-ranging, Androgens in health and wellbeing and illness bargains either researchers and training clinicians a accomplished survey of the way, why, and the place androgens exert their results, in addition to their healing roles in a vast variety of diseases.
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Additional info for Androgens in Health and Disease
The critical features ofprotein-DNA binding that differentially determine the specificity of AR, GR, and PR binding to DNA regulatory sequences, and hence their discriminatory function in steroid-specific gene regulation, are now under scrutiny. Recent experiments have identified genes that are specifically responsive to androgens and analysis of the AR -binding sites in their promoters has revealed SRE motifs that resemble direct nuc1eotide repeat sequences rather than palindromic, inverted nuc1eotide repeat sequences (38) (see Table 1).
91. Winters SJ, Troen P. Evidence for a role of endogenous estrogen in the hypothalarnic control of gonadotropin secretion in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61:842-845. 92. Sharma TP, Blache D, Blackberry MA, Martin GB. Role of peripheral and central aromatization in the control of gonadotrophin secretion in the male sheep. Reprod Fertil Dev 1999; 11 :293-302. 93. Finkelstein JS, O'Dea LS, Whitcomb RW, et al. Sex steroid control of gonadotropin secretion in the human male. 11. Effects of estradiol administration in normal and gonadotropin-releasing hormonedeficient men.
Another mechanism involves AR gene amplification that has been detected in up to 30% of advanced cancer specimens and may lead to enhanced levels of AR expression (98). As previously mentioned, ligand-independent activation of AR may result from crosstalk with other signal transduction pathways in the absence of androgen. In addition, alterations in the size ofthe polyglutamine repeat may affect the transactivation of AR and influence androgen action in prostate cancer (35,99). Finally, enhanced expression or phosphorylation of coactivators may lead to their affect to amplify AR function, especially in an environment of reduced endogenous androgen levels following ablation therapy (100).
Androgens in Health and Disease by Stephen J. Winters MD, Barbara J. Clark PhD (auth.), Carrie J. Bagatell MD, William J. Bremner MD, PhD (eds.)